Images Early life Marco Polo was born in Veniceone of the most successful trading cities. His exact birth day is not known.
One view is it comes from the Polo family's use of the name Emilione to distinguish themselves from the numerous other Venetian families bearing the name Polo.
Marco Polo emerges as being curious and tolerant, and devoted to Kublai Khan and the dynasty that he served for two decades. The Polo party left Venice in The journey took 3 years after which they arrived in Cathay as it was then called and met the grandson of Genghis KhanKublai Khan. They left China in late or early  and were back in Venice in The tradition is that Polo dictated the book to a romance writer, Rustichello da Pisawhile in prison in Genoa between — Rustichello may have worked up his first Franco-Italian version from Marco's notes.
Book Two describes China and the court A biography of marco polo an italian traveler and trader Kublai Khan. Book Three describes some of the coastal regions of the East: Book Four describes some of the then-recent wars among the Mongols and some of the regions of the far north, like Russia.
Polo's writings included descriptions of cannibals and spice-growers. Legacy[ edit ] The Travels was a rare popular success in an era before printing.
The impact of Polo's book on cartography was delayed: Marco Polo's description of the Far East and its riches inspired Christopher Columbus 's decision to try to reach Asia by sea,[ citation needed ] in a westward route. A heavily annotated copy of Polo's book was among the belongings of Columbus.
Marco Polo was accompanied on his trips by his father and uncle both of whom had been to China previouslythough neither of them published any known works about their journeys.
The book was translated into many European languages in Marco Polo's own lifetime, but the original manuscripts are now lost.
The oldest surviving Polo manuscript is in Old French heavily flavoured with Italian;  for Luigi Foscolo Benedetto, this "F" text is the basic original text, which he corrected by comparing it with the somewhat more detailed Italian of Ramusio, together with a Latin manuscript in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana.
Other early important sources are R Ramusio's Italian translation first printed inand Z a fifteenth-century Latin manuscript kept at Toledo, Spain.
During copying and translating many errors were made, so there are many differences between the various copies. Olschki,collated sixty additional manuscript sources, in addition to some eighty that had been collected by Henry Yulefor his edition.
It was Benedetto who identified Rustichello da Pisa as the original compiler or amanuensisand his established text has provided the basis for many modern translations: Moule and Paul Pelliot published a translation under the title Description of the World that uses manuscript F as its base and attempts to combine the several versions of the text into one continuous narrative while at the same time indicating the source for each section London, University of California ; it had its origins in the celebrations of the seven hundredth anniversary of Marco Polo's birth.
Authenticity and veracity[ edit ] Since its publication, many have viewed the book with skepticism. Some in the Middle Ages viewed the book simply as a romance or fable, largely because of the sharp difference of its descriptions of a sophisticated civilisation in China to other early accounts by Giovanni da Pian del Carpine and William of Rubruck who portrayed the Mongols as "barbarians" who appeared to belong to "some other world".
Haw however argued that many of the "omissions" could be explained. For example, none of the other Western travelers to Yuan dynasty China at that time, such as Giovanni de' Marignolli and Odoric of Pordenonementioned the Great Wall, and that while remnants of the Wall would have existed at that time, it would not have been significant or noteworthy as it had not been maintained for a long time.
The Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders. The Mongol rulers whom Polo served also controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties.
He noted the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels. While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was only relaying something he heard as his description is inaccurate no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practiced in an extreme form at that time.
Polo had at times denied the "marvelous" fables and legends given in other European accounts, and also omitted descriptions of strange races of people then believed to inhabit eastern Asia and given in such accounts.
|Polo’s journey to Asia||It was common to hear there, in the shadow of the opal domes, beside the sumptuous palaces and in view of the golden gondolas, the most extraordinary stories and pilgrims.|
|Travels of the Polo family||It was a way to establish contact with the great civilizations of China, India, the Near East and Europe. Trade caravans, diplomatic missions, merchants representatives of religious circles, dervishes, warriors — millions people have passed on this road through time with nothing frightening these brave travelers, neither the difficult roads, nor the waterless deserts.|
|See Article History Marco Polo, born c. The family had traded with the Middle East for a long time, acquiring considerable wealth and prestige.|
For example, Odoric of Pordenone said that the Yangtze river flows through the land of pygmies only three spans high and gave other fanciful tales, while Giovanni da Pian del Carpine spoke of "wild men, who do not speak at all and have no joints in their legs", monsters who looked like women but whose menfolk were dogs, and other equally fantastic accounts.
Despite a few exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts are relatively free of the descriptions of irrational marvels, and in many cases where present mostly given in the first part before he reached China, such as mentions of Christian miracleshe made a clear distinction that they are what he had heard rather than what he had seen.
It is also largely free of the gross errors in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta who had confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal.
For example, when visiting Zhenjiang in JiangsuChina, Marco Polo noted that a large number of Christian churches had been built there. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century.
Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" seignora in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" sejourna there. Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed":Polo, Marco Marco Polo's travels to Asia (–95), immortalized in his Travels of Marco Polo.
Marco, his father, and his uncle set out from Venice in and reached China in Marco, his father, and his uncle set out from Venice in . Watch video · Marco Polo ( to January 8, ) was a Venetian explorer known for the book The Travels of Marco Polo, which describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia.
Polo traveled extensively with his. Marco Polo Essay Examples. 49 total results. A Focus on the Heroic Traveler and Trader, Marco Polo words. 2 pages.
An Introduction to the History of Travels by Marco Polo. 1, words. 4 pages.
A Biography and Travels of Marco Polo, an Italian Traveler and Trader. 2, words. 6 pages. The Life and Journey of Marco Polo A Biography. Marco Polo was born in Venice, or possibly Croatia, in Located on the eastern coast of Italy, Venice served as a gateway to the riches of Asia during this era of increasing trade.
Marco Polo S.S. 9R Period 2 May 6, Marco Polo Marco Polo is one of the most well-known heroic travelers and traders around the world. In my paper I will discuss with you Marco Polo s life, his travels, and his visit to China to see the great Khan. May 14, · "Marco Polo," in Catholic Encyclopedia, (ed.) by Charles G.
Herbermann and others, New York: The Encyclopaedia Press () Works by this author published before January 1, are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least years ago.