German society, economy, and culture in the 14th and 15th centuries Transformation of rural life Despite the impressive advance of trade and industry in the later Middle Ages, German society was still sustained chiefly by agriculture. Of an estimated population of 12 million inonly 1. Agriculture exhibited strong regional differences in organization.
Faced with a resurgent and irredentist Nazi Germany, Chamberlain had attempted to avert war by a policy of appeasementabandoned only after Germany became more overtly expansionist with the annexation of Czechoslovakia in March At this point a government supporter noted privately: During this period Great Britain has suffered a series of diplomatic defeats and humiliations, culminating in the outbreak of European war.
It is an unbroken record of failure in foreign policy, and there has been no outstanding success at home to offset the lack of it abroad Yet it is probable that Neville Chamberlain still retains the confidence of the majority of his fellow country-men and that, if it were possible to obtain an accurate test of the feelings of the electorate, Chamberlain would be found the most popular statesman in the land.
In response to the German invasion, Britain sent limited land and naval forces to assist the Norwegians. Apart from the naval success at Narvikthe subsequent Norwegian campaign had gone badly for Britain for very basic reasons.
But in view of the difference in strength between the opposing forces A fierce discontent could under no circumstances have succeeded. After the war, Churchill had served as a Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer, before entering the political wilderness.
His past views and actions on domestic issues, most notably his opposition to the United Kingdom general strikedid not make him a natural associate of the Labour Movement. He had vigorously urged various policies opposition to Indian Home Rulesupport for King Edward VIII during the Abdication Crisis outside the political mainstream; when he had first warned against the rise of Germany and argued strongly for rearmament, he had largely been ignored.
He had argued against appeasement, even at the height of its popularity. On the outbreak of the Second World War, Chamberlain brought Churchill into government again in his old post of First Lord, so giving him direct responsibility for the conduct of naval operations.
Churchill was required to defend the government of which he was a member, whatever his private views.
He had pressed the Cabinet to ignore Norwegian neutrality, mine Norwegian territorial waters and be prepared to seize Narvik, in both cases to disrupt the export of Swedish iron ore to Germany during winter months, when the Baltic Sea was frozen.
Militarily, reference could be made to the First World War Antwerp and Gallipoli expeditions as relevant to the hazards which were run or should have been run in Norway. Politically, there were two obvious precedents: I think it was Carlyle who said of Oliver Cromwell: He imparted immediately a new surge of strength, of impulse, far stronger than anything that had been known up to that time, and extending over the whole field of war-time Government, every part of which was of equal interest to him.
Under Westminster rules in such debates, held to allow for wide-ranging discussion of a variety of topics, the question is not usually put to a vote. In this case, the Opposition forced a vote to demonstrate their deep concern and so this vote was effectively on a motion of confidence.
This being agreed, the House proceeded to openly discuss "Conduct of the War", specifically the progress of the Norwegian Campaign, and the Prime Minister rose to make his opening statement.
Chamberlain said that since his previous statement to the House on progress in Norway on Thursday, 2 May, British forces had successfully withdrawn from southern Norway.
Chamberlain began to make a case that actual Allied losses had been light and German losses disproportionate to any benefit they had gained.
He was interrupted by Labour MPs pointing out that the reverse had come as a shock to the country and the world. Chamberlain attempted to deal with that by saying that it had been a shock because of unrealistic expectations for which ministers were not to blame, but at several points MPs derisively shouted out, "They missed the bus!
He asserted that the phrase had not been intended as a prediction but a retrospective comment that the totalitarian states had prepared for war while the United Kingdom was thinking only of peace and so he would have expected an attack at the outbreak of war when the disparity of arms was at its greatest.
Returning to the conduct of the campaign, he pointed out that much of Norway was not yet controlled by the Germans; the Allies had been right to send the forces they had to southern Norway and right to withdraw them.
Preparations had been thought adequate to aid the Norwegians against any likely German intervention. In the event, the scale of the German invasion and its ruthless breach of neutrality meant that the rapid seizure by the Germans of all major ports had prevented the landing of significant Allied forces and that the rapid reinforcement of the German invasion forces, unobstructed by expected demolitions on roads from the South, had prevented the landed British forces from taking Trondheim.
On the conduct of the war, he still saw no need for a smaller and more powerful War Cabinetbut Churchill, already First Lord of the Admiralty and Chairman of the Military Co-ordinating Committee of the Cabinet, was to be given powers to direct the Chiefs of Staff Committee.
Other minor changes would doubtless be made from time to time, but "it would be better to occupy ourselves with increasing our war effort rather than disputing about the form of Government".Crossword Solver - Crossword Clues, synonyms, anagrams and definition of baleful.
Germany - German society, economy, and culture in the 14th and 15th centuries: Despite the impressive advance of trade and industry in the later Middle Ages, German society was still sustained chiefly by agriculture.
Of an estimated population of 12 million in , only million resided in cities and towns. Agriculture exhibited strong . One of the critical elements for a culture of peace is social justice. Perceptions of injustice lead to discontent, non-cooperation, conflict, civil unrest, and war.
Michael McGerr’s A Fierce Discontent is an accessible, solidly-argued account of the Progressive Movement in America.
Beyond this, the writing style is elegant and intelligent with narrative devices that are both engaging and highly useful. World War I began in , after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and lasted until During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central.
A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, , by Michael McGerr () By J. Taylor Vurpillat The upsurge in public awareness of economic inequality since the financial crisis has refocused attention on the Gilded Age and Progressive Era in American history, a period defined by wealth disparities that parallel our own.