A photon-counting detector for dual-energy breast tomosynthesis

CT is an accurate technique for diagnosis of abdominal diseases. Its uses include diagnosis and staging of cancer, as well as follow up after cancer treatment to assess response.

A photon-counting detector for dual-energy breast tomosynthesis

Background A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. A screening mammography is one of several tools that are used for early detection of breast cancer in asymptomatic women. Other screening tools include the clinical breast examination and breast self-examination.

Diagnostic mammography is used to diagnose breast cancer in women who have signs or symptoms of breast disease, or who has a history of breast cancer. Each breast is positioned and compressed between two clear plates, which are attached to a specialized camera, and pictures are taken from two directions.

Ph.D. Abstracts submitted to Medical Physics

The technique is the same as in screen-film mammography. Adjustments can be made during the procedure, thus reducing the need to repeat mammograms and reducing the exposure to radiation. Images of the entire breast can be captured regardless of tissue density.

Screening mammography aims to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer by early detection and treatment of occult malignancies. Data on women under age 50 are less clear. Results from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study CNBSS suggest that the contribution of mammography over good physical examinations to breast cancer mortality reduction may be less than has been assumed.

A photon-counting detector for dual-energy breast tomosynthesis

This observation re-emphasizes a truism of screening -- that it is not necessary to detect cancers as early as possible to obtain a benefit -- it is only necessary to detect them early enough. What is early enough in any individual case is uncertain because there are insufficient outcomes data.

This has made it difficult for professional societies to develop specific mammography screening recommendations for high-risk women. Whereas they had formerly recommended routine screening every 1 to 2 years starting at age 40, they now recommend against routine screening for women aged 40 to 49 and biennial rather than annual screening for women aged 50 to The USPSTF concluded that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the additional benefits and harms of screening mammography in women aged 75 years or older, clinical breast examination CBE beyond screening mammography in women aged 40 years or older, and either digital mammography or magnetic resonance imaging instead of film mammography as screening modalities for breast cancer.

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Recent recommendations from the SBI and the ACR released after the USPSTF recommendations, which recommended that average-risk women wait until age 50 to undergo screening mammography, continue to support yearly screening mammography beginning at age 40 for women at average-risk for breast cancer.

The AAFP and ACPM recommend that mammography in high-risk women begin at age 40, and AAFP recommends that all women aged 40 to 49 be counseled about the risks and benefits of mammography before making decisions about screening.

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A Consensus Development Panel convened by the National Institutes of Health concluded that the evidence was insufficient to determine the benefits of mammography among women aged 40 to This panel recommended that women aged 40 to 49 should be counseled about potential benefits and harms before making decisions about mammography.

Inthe CTFPHC concluded there was insufficient evidence to recommend for or against mammography in women aged 40 to Organizations differ on their recommendations for the appropriate interval for mammography. ACOG recommends mammography every 1 to 2 years for women aged 40 to 49 and annually for women aged 50 and older.

In addition, the USPSTF reviewed comparative decision models on optimal starting and stopping ages and intervals for screening mammography; how breast density, breast cancer risk, and comorbidity level affect the balance of benefit and harms of screening mammography; and the number of radiation-induced breast cancer cases and deaths associated with different screening mammography strategies over the course of a woman's lifetime.

This recommendation applies to asymptomatic women aged 40 years or older who do not have pre-existing breast cancer or a previously diagnosed high-risk breast lesion and who are not at high risk for breast cancer because of a known underlying genetic mutation such as a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation or other familial breast cancer syndrome or a history of chest radiation at a young age.A multislit photon-counting tomosynthesis system was utilized (spectral imaging) to produce both low- and high-energy tomographic data (below and above the k edge of iodine, respectively) in a single scan, which allowed for dual-energy visualization of iodine.

Mammography - Medical Clinical Policy Bulletins | Aetna

Abstract We present the first evaluation of a recently developed silicon-strip detector for photon-counting dual-energy breast tomosynthesis.

The detector is well suited for tomosynthesis with high dose efficiency and intrinsic scatter rejection. CT scan can be used for detecting both acute and chronic changes in the lung parenchyma, that is, the internals of the lungs.

It is particularly relevant here because normal two-dimensional X . Dual-energy mammography based on a photon-counting detector was simulated. • Radiation dose and image quality were evaluated for optimizing the proposed technique.

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Background. A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. A screening mammography is one of several tools that are used for early detection of breast cancer in asymptomatic women. A photon-counting silicon strip detector with two energy thresholds was investigated for spectral X-ray imaging in a mammography system.

Preliminary studies already indicate clinical benefit of the detector, and the purpose of the present study is optimization with respect to energy resolution.

Medical Physics Online - Ph.D. Abstracts