Both poems have at their core, the unnamed, genderless men who determine the sites where men live and work. Out for a Sunday afternoon drive in dry August, the poet and her companion are in a residential area. The row after row of the same house with its slanted roofs and the sanitary landscapes becomes monotonous. These blocks of houses seem almost untouchable.
Deciding how a city is set up involves creativity, and a career in city planning demands the knowledge of basic engineering principles, the ability to compromise, political diplomacy, and financial acumen. Strong analytic skills and sheer force of will are required to be a successful urban planner.
Every building or structure must be designed with an understanding of its relationship to other elements of the city, such as coordinating the construction of water and power facilities, while still allowing people access to light, heat, and fresh water, or designing housing complexes that will be close to public transportation.
Aesthetic design, another feature that the planner must consider, can be the subject of hot debate. The urban planner has to design with an understanding of the policies of the city and create economically viable plans.
This last consideration factor can be difficult—urban-planning projects nearly always run over budget and past deadline, and even the most frugal design can be expected to run into opposition from some quarter.
The planner begins by surveying sites and performing demographic, economic, and environmental studies to assess the needs of the community and encourage public participation in the process. If the planner is redeveloping an area as opposed to groundbreaking or landfilling ithe or she must evaluate existing buildings and neighborhoods before determining what can be done to change the standing structures.
During these phases, planners work closely with economic consultants to formulate a plan that makes sense for both the economy of the region and the residents. The next step is to create maps and designs. When the architects draft plans for the construction of bridges, radio and telephone towers, and other large pieces of infrastructure, the urban planner works closely with them.
The planner does substantial research regarding zoning and landscaping laws. He meets with community groups to obtain information on transportation and land usage.
Paying Your Dues Urban developers are employed by many different agencies, and many travel throughout the country to find employment.
Experienced engineers often work in private firms or with general contractors, where the planner enjoys far more independence.
One year structural engineer noticed that many recent graduates handle textbook problems wonderfully, but are less apt at identifying and coping with real-life problems. Internships can convert to paid positions following graduation. After four years of working full-time, urban planners are eligible to take a step-one licensing test.
There are two of these tests step one and step two ; which one a planner takes depends on his or her interests and area of expertise.
After getting this license and working for four additional years, serious candidates take another test to obtain the title of professional engineer. These certifications are not required, but they are respected within the profession.
Generally, acquiring these licenses leads to a promotion and increases in salary. Present and Future Urban planning began in the United States in the early twentieth century as a response to the rapid development of suburban towns and the renovations of historical cities.
Now, every city and many towns have offices for urban planning and development. The novice planner is working under the supervision and guidance of other planners. Many planners work as interns for a portion of these initial years. The hours can be long. Many planners are becoming quite adept at pitching ideas, working within constrained budgets, and political maneuvering.
The majority of planners who leave the profession migrate about this time, fed up by lack of professional progress or failure to pass licensing exams. Many planners have become directors or senior planners. A number of them have mentor roles where they train and educate newer members of the profession.Mar 18, · Re: using MTA trip planner Mar 18, , PM I don't know if the MTA app works like the Google maps one, but Google will give you a station further away if there is a train leaving from the further station before there is one leaving from the nearer station, if that will result in a shorter trip.
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