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Part One discusses U. It also examines other forms of soft power such as military diplomacy, global trade and investment, and sovereign wealth funds.
China and the United States use tools of soft power in different ways and with varying effects. Since the mids, the PRC has adopted an increasingly active and pragmatic diplomatic approach around the world that emphasizes complementary economic interests.
China's influence and image have been bolstered through its increasingly open and sophisticated diplomatic corps as well as through prominent PRC-funded infrastructure, public works, and economic investment projects in many developing countries.
Meanwhile, some surveys have indicated marked declines in the U. Some foreign observers have criticized U. According to some experts, U.
Despite China's growing influence, the United States retains significant strengths, including latent reserves of soft power, much of which lie beyond the scope of government.
Furthermore, by some indicators, China's soft power has experienced some recent setbacks, while the U. It continues to be the dominant external political and military actor in the Middle East and political and economic influence in Latin America.
The th Congress has held hearings and proposed measures that support U. This report will not be updated. OVERVIEW Introduction 1 In the past decade, China's "soft power"—global influence attained through diplomatic, economic, cultural, and other non-coercive means—has grown along with its international standing.
However, many analysts contend that U. Some experts argue that China's rise poses serious challenges to U. Contrasting Diplomatic Styles The PRC has captured the attention of many developing countries due to its pragmatic approach to diplomacy, the ways in which the government links diplomacy, commerce, and foreign aid, and the dramatic expansion of its global economic influence.
Since the end of the Cold War and the acceleration of China's economic take-off in the mids, Beijing's "win-win" diplomatic style has featured greater accommodation and an emphasis on short-term, common economic interests.
In the past several years, China's proliferating trade, investment, and foreign aid accords with other countries, made possible by its own rapid development, have stressed mutual benefits.
Through these agreements, China has gained markets for its goods, access to raw materials, and international esteem while providing other countries with foreign investment and aid projects without imposing conditions such as political and economic performance criteria.
China's style of diplomacy and its foreign policy principle of "non-interference" have been characterized as sensitive to local conditions rather than imposing standards.
Many countries appear to appreciate this style. China's Economic Attractiveness Even without Beijing's new brand of diplomacy, many developing countries are attracted to China because of what its economy represents.
However, the PRC, which is expected to rival the United States in terms of total trade bypromises its economic partners ever-growing opportunities for trade and investment. Finally, many developing countries are drawn to China's example of asymmetric power.
Some experts argue that the United States has neglected public diplomacy, particularly in helping to shape foreign perceptions of American policy. Leaders in many developing countries assert that U. Others lament that U. Some countries have found U.
Soft Power in Five Regions Economics and diplomacy are the central, mutually reinforcing components of China's growing soft power in the regions discussed below.
Trade, investment, and aid, particularly that which involves gaining access to raw materials for China's development, are behind much of the PRC's recent inroads throughout the developing world. Security and strategic concerns and goals also play prominent roles in China's soft power projections in Central Asia and Southeast Asia.
For the medium-term, Chinese leaders appear to have accepted the military dominance of the United States in Southeast Asia and the strategic roles played by Russia and the United States in Central Asia.
They also recognize the longer-term U. Contrasting ideologies and diplomatic approaches between China and the United States may be starkest in the Middle East, where Beijing has openly supported Arab and Palestinian causes and engaged in military cooperation with Iran.
Despite cutbacks during the s, U. The regions with the largest U. International Military Education and Training IMET program seeks to promote democratic values, mutual understanding, and professional and personal relationships in addition to military capacity.
China's fledgling public diplomacy counterparts, such as the Confucius Institutes, place more emphasis upon teaching than intellectual exchange and upon imparting an understanding of China rather than seeking common values through dialogue.
Furthermore, PRC foreign military training programs do not emphasize the building of personal or cultural rapport between Chinese and foreign military officers. Beginning in the mids, Beijing's ideological and isolationist foreign policy became more engaged and pragmatic. The PRC began to promote its trade and security interests through bilateral and multilateral cooperation.
In the past several years, many observers note, China's conduct of official bilateral exchanges has appeared to be more active than that of the United States, especially with smaller developing countries.The supernatural beliefs of ancient Filipinos can be gleaned from the writings of Spanish conquistadores, historians, and missionaries.
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