Argument While arguments attempt to show that something is, will be, or should be the case, explanations try to show why or how something is or will be. If Fred and Joe address the issue of whether or not Fred's cat has fleas, Joe may state:
Repeats same conversations More abusive, anxious, or paranoid The disease course is divided into four stages, with a progressive pattern of cognitive and functional impairment. Pre-dementia The first symptoms are often mistakenly attributed to ageing or stress. MCI can present with a variety of symptoms, and when memory loss is the predominant symptom, it is termed "amnestic MCI" and is frequently seen as a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease.
In a small percentage, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception agnosiaor execution of movements apraxia are more prominent than memory problems.
Older memories of the person's life episodic memoryfacts learned semantic memoryand implicit memory the memory of the body on how to do things, such as using a fork to eat or how to drink from a glass are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories.
Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost. Common manifestations are wanderingirritability and labile affectleading to crying, outbursts of unpremeditated aggressionor resistance to caregiving.
Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and exhaustion are much more common symptoms. People with Alzheimer's disease will ultimately not be able to perform even the simplest tasks independently; muscle mass and mobility deteriorates to the point where they are bedridden and unable to feed themselves.
The cause of death is usually an external factor, such as infection of pressure ulcers or pneumonianot the disease itself. Most of autosomal dominant familial AD can be attributed to mutations in one of three genes: Cholinergic hypothesis The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis,  which proposes that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support, largely because medications intended to treat acetylcholine deficiency have not been very effective. While apolipoproteins enhance the breakdown of beta amyloid, some isoforms are not very effective at this task such as APOE4leading to excess amyloid buildup in the brain.
These toxic oligomers, also referred to as amyloid-derived diffusible ligands ADDLsbind to a surface receptor on neurons and change the structure of the synapse, thereby disrupting neuronal communication. The theory holds that an amyloid-related mechanism that prunes neuronal connections in the brain in the fast-growth phase of early life may be triggered by ageing-related processes in later life to cause the neuronal withering of Alzheimer's disease.
In this model, beta-amyloid plays a complementary role, by depressing synaptic function. In earlya trial of verubecestatwhich inhibits the beta-secretase protein responsible for creating beta-amyloid protein was discontinued as an independent panel found "virtually no chance of finding a positive clinical effect".
The tau hypothesis proposes that tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade.
Eventually, they form neurofibrillary tangles inside nerve cell bodies. These ions affect and are affected by tau, APP, and APOE,  and their dysregulation may cause oxidative stress that may contribute to the pathology.
An infection with Spirochetes a bacterium in gum disease may cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease Histopathologic image of senile plaques seen in the cerebral cortex of a person with Alzheimer's disease of presenile onset.
There is cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease, associated with loss of gyri and sulci in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus. Neuropathology Alzheimer's disease is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions.
This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the temporal lobe and parietal lobeand parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.
Tangles neurofibrillary tangles are aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau which has become hyperphosphorylated and accumulate inside the cells themselves.
Although many older individuals develop some plaques and tangles as a consequence of ageing, the brains of people with AD have a greater number of them in specific brain regions such as the temporal lobe. The beta-amyloid fragment is crucial in the formation of senile plaques in AD.
Alzheimer's disease has been identified as a protein misfolding disease proteopathycaused by plaque accumulation of abnormally folded amyloid beta protein, and tau protein in the brain.
APP is a transmembrane protein that penetrates through the neuron's membrane. APP is critical to neuron growth, survival, and post-injury repair. Every neuron has a cytoskeletonan internal support structure partly made up of structures called microtubules.Dec 24, · Tuesday, December 24, Discussion Questions.
1 Introduction Two phenomena impacted the U.S. economy in the years preceding the Great Recession.
One is the dramatic rise in household debt from to The other is an unprecedented increase in import competition triggered by the expansion of China and other low-wage.
Blauner () argues convincingly that Black Americans constitute such a ing white culture, several hypotheses were advanced concerning opinion leadership and innovativeness.
These Hirschman, Adcock for a discussion of the litera. Compilation des plus belles chansons de Noël - Les Plus Belles Musiques de Noël - Duration: 1 hour, 13 minutes.
Disucussion on the Noel and Blauner Hypotheses. When two distinct groups first come into contact with each other, the conditions of that meeting can determine the fate and mold the relations of the two groups for generations. Donald Noel and Robert Blauner have analyzed this initial contact and developed hypotheses that aid in the understanding of this phase of the inter-group relations.
The Noel hypothesis recognizes that there are three segments to the contact situation, that when working together, lead to some sort of inequality between the groups.4/5(4).