With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable. In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the " science of biography ", " science of hadith " and " Isnad " chain of transmission. These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Islamic civilization. Famous historians in this tradition include Urwah d.
The War on Terror is a Fraud "In the mid-'80s, if you remember He [Osama bin Laden] came to thank me for my efforts to bring the Americans, our friends, to help us against the atheists.
First, the United States began a troop surge in Afghanistan designed to deliver the final blow to the Taliban insurgency. Not one media institution connected the dots that the United States was actively funding the harm that its armed forces were simultaneously fighting.
Following the official narrative of the war, it certainly doesn't make any sense that the United States was indirectly prolonging the quagmire.
Perhaps such mistakes are the inevitability of a bloated war bureaucracy, or that U. Unfortunately, a collection of evidence points to a more sinister explanation: Throughout the '80s he was armed by the CIA and funded by the Saudis to wage jihad against the Russian occupation of Afghanistan.
Al-Qaida, literally " the base ", was originally the computer data-base of the thousands of mujahideen who were recruited and trained with help from the CIA to defeat the Russians. Inexplicably, and with disastrous consequences, it never appears to have occurred to Washington that once Russia was out of the way, Bin Laden's organization would turn its attention to the west.
A great article written by Robert Cook, whose life was tragically cut short within a year of its publication from a heart attack. Worth reading in its entirety. Senate testimony about the development of a poison dart pistol which can cause a heart attack and leave no trace indicating assassination.
I warned them that we were creating a monster. At the time, the Mujahideen was composed of many different, loosely organized groups encompassing a broad spectrum of ideologies, with widely varying perspectives on religion, society and state.
Seven major Afghan factions began receiving aid, three of them Islamic moderates and four of them Islamic fundamentalists, as defined by the military. In addition to native Afghans, they were composed of many foreigners who traveled to fight the invasion, such as Osama bin Laden himself.
Many were high tech, such as Stinger Anti-Aircraft missiles,12 provided with the intention of demoralizing Soviet commanders and soldiers.
Madrassas are not inherently negative institutions, however the ones who received funding from the CIA were particularly radical. Brzezinksi recalled his involvement to a French news magazine in That secret operation was an excellent idea.
It had the effect of drawing the Soviets into the Afghan trap.International Design Organisations Legacies, Histories, Values. 9 November A conference exploring the histories, legacies and values of international design organisations in a post-industrial, post-organisational world.
The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla.
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Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. CURRICULUM VITAE. Download PDF. Kwame Anthony Akroma-Ampim Kusi APPIAH. Professor of Philosophy and Law, New York University. Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy and the University Center for Human Values Emeritus, Princeton University.
Syllabus (printable PDF incl. day-to-day schedule); Course Description. This course explores theoretical and historical perspectives on the intersection of law, society and politics, and aims to foster discussion of contemporary issues among students from different cultures and disciplines.