Scientists used to think that nerve cells were incapable of regeneration if they were damaged.
The sodium ion immediately forms a ion water complex and is drawn back toward the negatively charge metal surface to repeat the reactions of Equations 1, 2, and 3 over again.
The negative electrode has become a continuous generation source for OH- ions. Also, hydroxyl ions begin to leave the region of the negative electrode by normal thermal driven diffusion processes.
The negatively charged hydroxyl ions repel away the negatively charged chlorine ions Cl-but attracts in the positively charged ions of the saline solution to "shield" or negate the electric field from their negative charge. If the hydroxyl ions are generated at a high enough rate, then a concentration of hydroxyl ions significantly higher than the initial chlorine ion concentration can be achieved in the region of the negative electrode.
Along with this high hydroxyl ion concentration is a comparable increase in the concentration of positive ions of the saline solution in the proximity of the negative electrode to counter the electric field generated by these negatively charged hydroxyl ions.
It is therefore this hydroxyl ion generation process directly behind the wound site in Figure 7A which causes the body cells in that region to experience a significant increase in positive ions around their outer cell membranes, while at the same time experiencing a significant drop in the concentration of negatively charged chlorine ions Cl- outside of their cell membranes.
The positive electrode has an analogous set of ion reactions occurring which offset or balance out the charge displacements occurring at the negative electrode.
Chlorine ions recombine at the positive electrode forming chlorine gas Cl2 and donating their extra electron to the positively charged silver electrode. Also, minor amounts of molecular oxygen and positive hydrogen ions are being generated at the silver electrode surface Regeneration of neurons the reaction indicated in Equation 4.
All cell membranes have various types of ion channels for each ion type, i. The various ion concentrations outside the cell lipid membrane strongly influence the ion transport across the cell membrane and therefore the ion concentrations inside the cell and thereby cell physiology and genetic activity.
Consider the hydroxyl ion generation processwhich will occur in the set up of Figure 6B. Shortly after hydroxyl ion production has started, higher than normal positive ion concentration will occur around the negative electrode from the positive ions drawn in by the hydroxyl ion electric field, thereby shielding the hydroxyl ion electric field.
The hydroxyl ions will not only keep diffusing away from the negative electrode after their creationthey are also actively being drawn toward the positive electrode. In Figure 6B the lines joining the two electrodes are the electric field lines.
These lines represent the path that a negative or positive ion will follow when traveling between the two electrodes, if they initially are located on one of these lines and only the electric field is acting on the ion. The relatively shorter the line also represent where the electric field is relatively the strongest and where the ions therefore travel between the electrodes at the highest "drift" velocity.
As the hydroxyl ions are generated at the negative electrode and bring in positive ions to shield their electric fieldthey are also being guided along the field lines of Figure 6B toward the positive electrode. However, the hydroxyl ions bring drag much of their positive shielding ions with them.
Furthermore, as the hydroxyl ions which were generated on the shortest field lines travel away from the negative electrode toward the positive electrode carrying much of their shielding positive ions with them, other hydroxyl ions along with their positive ion shielding cloud are transported onto the shortest field lines by ion density gradient "pressures".
The end or net result is that sort of a expanding plum of hydroxyl ions along with their positive shielding ions travel directly to the region of the positive electrode by approximately the shortest path.
The cells surrounding the positive electrode thereby also experience a significant increase in the positive ion concentration on the outside of their cell membranes, along with a significant decrease in chlorine ion Cl- concentration from hydroxyl ion repulsion of chlorine ions. These cells frog blood cells therefore go through the same changes as the cells at the negative electrode, as was described earlier.
The positive hydrogen ions generated at the positive electrode also react with the negative hydroxyl ions to form water. However, the hydrogen ion diffusion velocity is so much greater than that of the hydroxyl ion that it rapidly diffuses out of the positive electrode region, thereby allowing the plum of hydroxyl ions along with its shielding positive ions to be drawn to the immediate vicinity of the positive electrode before the hydroxyl ions and hydrogen ions significantly recombine.
So far I have used simple hand waving qualitative electric field interaction arguments to indicate how significant ion concentration changes can occur around electrodes in saline solution to explain how cells can be effected by feeble direct electric currents.
All that is required is for us to realize we need only scale up the results of the rat experiment of Figure 7A to that of human size. Platinum plated stainless steel acupuncture needles have been inserted directly behind the amputation site a few days or so after the amputation.
It is the ion concentrations that are the missing critical factor. And the ion concentrations required for blastema formation and maintenance should be about the same for all mammals.
Soall that is required is to imagine that each acupuncture needle is taking care of one rat arm section and then ask the question: Approximately how many rat arm section crossectional areas do we have in this amputated finger crossectional area?
That number is how many acupuncture needles are required for the finger. Note that I am using the same electrical circuit used in Figure 7A. Becker found that a current in the neighborhood of two hundred nanoamps would work well in rat arm regeneration experiments.
Also reference to the resistance 10 Meg ohms used in cartilage regeneration experiments discussed on page shows the error.
That blood supply system has associated with it the continuous active pressure and diffusion driven transport of blood plasma through the inter cellular spaces in the damaged tissue region. Since the contact potential difference between silver and platinum is about 2.
Becker would of had complete rat arm regeneration, if he could of had the implant move along with the regrowth on the arm as Smith did in his complete regrowth of a amputated frog limb.TO REPAIR TISSUE AND REPLACE BODY PARTS (PART ONE) BY GARY WADE, PHYSICIST In this article I am going to give a review of the essential aspects and results of Dr.
Robert Becker's research group and the work of others, as was laid out in his book, THE BODY ELECTRIC, which will supply the solid foundation needed to support a simple yet critical observation, which explains how in general to.
Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the brain and spinal cord, little spontaneous regeneration, repair or healing occurs. Therefore, brain damage, paralysis from spinal cord injury and peripheral nerve damage are often permanent and incapacitating. Investigators report on a transcription factor that they have found that can help certain neurons regenerate, while simultaneously killing others.
The optic nerve is vital for vision . Consequently, their ability to regenerate is limited even in the absence of inhibitors. Increasing the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons allows modest axon regeneration within the CNS (Bomze et al. ; Neumann and Woolf ). Axon regeneration is one of many factors influencing recovery after CNS damage.
Scientists have used supporting cells of the central nervous system, glial cells, to regenerate from damaged cells the healthy and functional neurons that are critical for transmitting signals in the brain, shown in green in this image in the brain of a mouse with Alzheimer's disease.
Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.
Neuroregeneration differs between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS) by the functional mechanisms and especially .