Most immature babies will desire to follow with their female parents wants. This consequence was accomplished by the female parents.
It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information.
Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. One may ask how does learning happen?
Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation.
Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced.
Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional.
Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning.
Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom.
For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences.
There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral Theory The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual.
In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment.
The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses.
Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence.
Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus.
The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.
Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding.
He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent stimulusthe behavior response and the consequences.
Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues. Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior.
There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.
Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals. Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress.
It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies. This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.
Cognitive Theory The cognitive theory focuses on the inner activities of the mind. The cognitive theory states that knowledge is learned and the changes in knowledge make the changes in behavior possible.
Both the behavioral and cognitive theory believe that reinforcement is important in learning but for different reasons.Social referencing is an imperative tool to any infant. Social referencing to an infant is when the infant is "seeking information about an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions."(Berger, , ).
These observations are in general acquired from mother, father, or caregiver. reference: both perceptual cues like visual salience and tem- poral synchrony, and social cues like eye-gaze and pointing.
To determine the referent of a speaker’s utterance, children.
Synchrony, attachment, and social referencing are sometimes more apparent with fathers than with mothers. Fathers typically elicit more smiles and laughter from their infants than mothers do, probably because they play more exciting games, while mothers do more caregiving and comforting.
Infants begin to use social referencing between eight and ten months of age. During this time, infants learn the meanings of several facial expressions as well as tones of voice.
With a standardized procedure, we found synchrony in the onset of mentalistic reasoning, with children crossing the false-belief milestone at approximately 5 years of age in every culture studied.
The meaning of this synchrony for the origins of mental-state understanding is discussed. Social referencing to an infant is when the infant is "seeking information about an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions."(Berger, , ).
These observations are in general acquired from mother, father, or caregiver.3/5(1).
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