Her research combines theories from evolutionary biology and cognitive psychology with methods from experimental psychology, behavioural ecology and experimental economics, to explore how physical appearance affects social decision-making. Her work focuses on human social communication — i.
More Essay Examples on Emotion Rubric In the modern era, American psychologists in the twentieth century began to specualate on long-held assumptions about facial expression and became fascinated by the possible universality and characteristics of certain core emotions.
One of the main reasons for the fascination with facial expressionss is that humans seem to be biologically programmed to focus on the human face A child, for instance, tends to bond and communicate non-verbally with others in their surroundings by studying and often touching the face of their caregivers.
This phenomenon tends to occur across cultures. Alternatively, some expressions of emotion seem to present themselves within a specific cultural context. As a basis for further human understanding, the topic of emotion and its relation to facial expression has re-emerged into prominence in the modern field of Social Psychology.
Russell contributed greatly to the study of facial expressions. He was born into an impoverished but aristocratic family which afforded him ample educational opportunities. Lamarck became what was known at the time as a Naturalist, espousing on various subjects ranging from botany to the evolution of man.
Lamarck was considered an accomplised Botanist, Biologist, Evolutionist and Academic. Lamarck had a long career in France and wrote a number of books on these subjects.
In he published his first 3 volume botanical series, Flore Francaise and in he gained membership into the French Academy of Sciences. At this time, his body of research included extensive studies into the evolution and behavior of animals.
As an academic philosopher, Lamarck began to broaden his biological works to propose new theories about how animals evolved and what triggered the adaptations of a species.
This zoological biology work proposed evolutionary ideas as to how animals organized and adapted and how this differentiated one species from another. Between andLamarck went published his final 7-volume series, Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres, Presentant les Caracteres Generaux et Particuliers de ces Animaux.
Soft Inheritance is the idea that there are certain characteristics which are acquired through inheritance.
Species acquire new characterictics from influences in their environment Lamarck, This type of inheritance then differentiates one species from another.
The inheritance of these acquired characteristics occurs due to repeated experiences. If the experience is not repeated, it may not become an acquired characteristic. This characteristic is the passed on to the next generation.
An example given by Lamarck was that of a father and son. A son observes his father displaying a particular facial expression when he finds something displeasurable. The son observes both the expression and the social context within which the expression occurs.
In this way, the son inherits this soft characteristic and the facial expression becomes a feature of soft inheritance.
In Use and Disuse Theory, adaptation in a species occurs because complex force drives organisms further up a ladder of increasing complexity.
Then, environmental force adapts organisms to their local environment. Adaptation evolves by using some characteristics more than others based upon differing environments. Those characteristics not used or needed as much drop off and those needed to suit a particular environment are passed on.
In some ways, the so-called Ghost of Lamarck left its impressions upon Darwin and sparked a debate among evolutionary theorists as to whether characteristics like facial expressions are socially learned skills which can be inherited by the next generation or if they are universal and slowly evolving, purely biologically programmed responses to basic human survival.
Universality of Facial Expressions Darwinian thought holds that facial expressions are universal in nature and evolved in man alongside his basic struggle for survival.
These facial expressions developed in order to protect and keep the species alive. One example would be that a tribe watches a woman take a bite out of a poisonous plant and observes her face as she shows disgust or pain.
Watching this response, the tribe knows not to taste this plant because this facial expression has long been biologically ingrained into the brain to serve as a protective mechanism for survival of the species.
Avoiding what is bad or painful and moving toward what is good or pleasurable ensures species survival. Along with this idea of universality, certain facial expressions determined to be core expressions of emotion came under universal classification in the twentieth century.
Contempt is the most recent addition thanks to decades of work by psychologist David Matsumoto Innuit, These universal expressions are said to be a finite, small set of expressions that must be discriminated. They are also able to be discriminated using specific features.
These universal expressions refer to the internal states usually, emotions of people. Finally, they are largely universal in both their configuration and their meaning Fridlund, et. It is interesting to note that both the ancient Greeks and American psychologists in the twentieth century described facial expressions are referring to the internal state of a person.
The Greeks would have said the expression on the face embodies the passions of the person while modern psychology would state the expression on the face describes an emotion the person is experiencing.How writers, feminists and the internet reacted to a woman's account of a date gone wrong.
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Sociology Chapter 4 Quiz Review. STUDY. PLAY. Facial expressions, posture, and gestures are all examples of _____. personal images body language role performance interpretations. Anthony, a retired Army officer, is a professor of sociology at a small state university.
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