The state of our education system - NEEDU Nick Taylor 03 May Report on the foundation phase says appointments and promotions have to be made on the basis of expertise National Report The State of Literacy Teaching and Learning in the Foundation Phase April 1 Introduction The object of the common school system in Massachusetts was to give to every child in the Commonwealth a free, straight solid path-way by which he could walk directly up from the ignorance of an infant to a knowledge of the primary duties of a man; and could acquire a power and an invincible will to discharge them.
The Egyptians kept written records using a writing system known as hieroglyphics. Some writing was preserved on stone or clay, and some was preserved on papyrus, a paper-like product made from reed fiber.
Papyrus is very fragile, but due to the hot and dry climate of Egypt, a few papyrus documents have survived. Repeated struggles for political control of Egypt showed the importance of the region in terms of its agricultural production and the economic resources that its highly complex social organization produced.
Egyptian rulers used the idea of divine kingship and constructed monumental architecture to demonstrate and maintain power. Map of Ancient Egypt and the Mediterranean and Red seas.
Land is beige and the habitable regions of Egypt are highlighted in Green all along the Nile River and the delta that opens out to the Mediterranean Sea in the north.
Lower Egypt is the northern region and Upper Egypt is the southern region of this map. The areas in green show the habitable regions of Egypt.
Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons. Even before the Old Kingdom period, the foundations of Egyptian civilization were being laid for thousands of years as people living near the Nile increasingly focused on sedentary agriculture, which led to urbanization and specialized, non-agricultural economic activity.
Evidence of human habitation in Egypt stretches back tens of thousands of years. However, it was only in about BCE that widespread settlement began in the region.
Around this time, the Sahara Desert expanded. Some scientists think this expansion was caused by a slight shift in the tilt of the Earth. Others have explored changing rainfall patterns, but the specific causes are not entirely clear.
The most important result of this expansion of the Sahara for human civilization was that it pushed humans closer to the Nile River in search of reliable water sources.
Apart from the delta region, where the river spreads out as it flows into the sea, most settlement in the Nile Valley was confined to within a few miles of the river itself, see map above.
The Nile River flooded annually; this flooding was so regular that the ancient Egyptians set their three seasons—Inundation, or flooding, Growth, and Harvest—around it. This annual flooding was vital to agriculture because it deposited a new layer of nutrient-rich soil each year.
In years when the Nile did not flood, the nutrient level in the soil was seriously depleted, and the chance of food shortages increased greatly.
Food supplies had political effects, as well, and periods of drought probably contributed to the decline of Egyptian political unity at the ends of both the Old and Middle Kingdoms.
Although we do not know the specific dates and events, most scholars who study this period believe that sometime around the year BCE, a leader named either Narmer or Menes—sources are unclear on whether these were the same person! Somewhat confusingly, when you look at a map of this area, Lower Egypt is the delta region in the north, and Upper Egypt refers to the southern portion of the country, which is upriver from the delta.
You may encounter this terminology when reading about rivers in history, so a good trick is to remember that rivers flow downhill, so the river is lower toward its end at the sea and higher closer to its source!
After political unification, divine kingship, or the idea that a political ruler held his power by favor of a god or gods—or that he was a living incarnation of a god—became firmly established in Egypt. For example, in the mythology that developed around unification, Narmer was portrayed as Horus, a god of Lower Egypt, where Narmer originally ruled.The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued .