Greek streptos, twisted; kokkus, berry; pyon, pus; genes, born, be produced. The streptococci represent a large group of bacteria which were first identified by Christian Albert Theodor Billroth in and classified into an alphabetical sequence by the American bacteriologist Rebecca Craighill Lancefield in Moreover, streptococci can also reside in an individual who is not affected by them and is thus a carrier. When access is by inhalation, the organisms colonise the upper air passages to initiate, for example, tonsillitis.
Tweet theories of personality child children behaviors social A pattern of behavior that is verbally or physically harmful to other people, animals, or property, including behavior that severely violates social expectations for a particular environment. Antisocial behavior can be broken down into two components: Most children exhibit some antisocial behavior during their development, and different children demonstrate varying levels of prosocial and antisocial behavior.
Some children may exhibit high levels of both antisocial and prosocial behaviors; for example, the popular but rebellious child. Some, however, may exhibit low levels of both types of behaviors; for example, the withdrawn, thoughtful child.
High levels of antisocial behavior are considered a clinical disorder. Young children may exhibit hostility towards authority, and be diagnosed with oppositional-defiant disorder. Older children may lie, steal, or engage in violent behaviors, and be diagnosed with conduct disorder.
Mental health professionals agree, and rising rates of serious school disciplinary problems, delinquency, and violent crime indicate, that antisocial behavior in general is increasing.
A small percentage of antisocial children grow up to become adults with antisocial personality disorderand a greater proportion suffer from the social, academic, and occupational failures resulting from their antisocial behavior.
Causes and characteristics Factors that contribute to a particular child's antisocial behavior vary, but usually they include some form of family problems e. A child may exhibit antisocial behavior in response to a specific stressor such as the death of a parent or a divorce for a limited period of time, but this is not considered a psychiatric condition.
Children and adolescents with antisocial behavior disorders have an increased risk of accidents, school failure, early alcohol and substance use, suicide, and criminal behavior.
The elements of a moderate to severely antisocial personality are established as early as kindergarten. Antisocial children score high on traits of impulsiveness, but low on anxiety and reward-dependence—that is, the degree to which they value, and are motivated by, approval from others.
Yet underneath their tough exterior antisocial children have low self-esteem.
A salient characteristic of antisocial children and adolescents is that they appear to have no feelings. Besides showing no care for others' feelings or remorse for hurting others, they tend to demonstrate none of their own feelings except anger and hostility, and even these are communicated by their aggressive acts and not necessarily expressed through affect.
One analysis of antisocial behavior is that it is a defense mechanism that helps the child to avoid painful feelings, or else to avoid the anxiety caused by lack of control over the environment.
Antisocial behavior may also be a direct attempt to alter the environment. Social learning theory suggests that negative behaviors are reinforced during childhood by parents, caregivers, or peers. In one formulation, a child's negative behavior e. The child will apply the learned behavior at school, and a vicious cycle sets in: As the child matures, "mutual avoidance" sets in with the parent sas each party avoids the negative behaviors of the other.
Consequently, the child receives little care or supervision and, especially during adolescenceis free to join peers who have similarly learned antisocial means of expression. Different forms of antisocial behavior will appear in different settings. Antisocial children tend to minimize the frequency of their negative behaviors, and any reliable assessment must involve observation by mental health professionals, parents, teachers, or peers.
Treatment The most important goals of treating antisocial behavior are to measure and describe the individual child's or adolescent's actual problem behaviors and to effectively teach him or her the positive behaviors that should be adopted instead.
In severe cases, medication will be administered to control behavior, but it should not be used as substitute for therapy. Children who experience explosive rage respond well to medication. Ideally, an interdisciplinary team of teachers, social workers, and guidance counselors will work with parents or caregivers to provide universal or "wrap-around" services to help the child in all aspects of his or her life: In many cases, parents themselves need intensive training on modeling and reinforcing appropriate behaviors in their child, as well as in providing appropriate discipline to prevent inappropriate behavior.
A variety of methods may be employed to deliver social skills training, but especially with diagnosed antisocial disorders, the most effective methods are systemic therapies which address communication skills among the whole family or within a peer group of other antisocial children or adolescents.
These probably work best because they entail actually developing or redeveloping positive relationships between the child or adolescent and other people. Methods used in social skills training include modeling, role playing, corrective feedback, and token reinforcement systems.
Regardless of the method used, the child's level of cognitive and emotional development often determines the success of treatment.
Adolescents capable of learning communication and problem-solving skills are more likely to improve their relations with others. Unfortunately, conduct disorders, which are the primary form of diagnosed antisocial behavior, are highly resistant to treatment.
Few institutions can afford the comprehensiveness and intensity of services required to support and change a child's whole system of behavior; in most cases, for various reasons, treatment is terminated usually by the client long before it is completed.
Often, the child may be fortunate to be diagnosed at all. Schools are frequently the first to address behavior problems, and regular classroom teachers only spend a limited amount of time with individual students.
Special education teachers and counselors have a better chance at instituting long-term treatment programs—that is, if the student stays in the same school for a period of years.Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC): This term refers to a range of crimes and activities involving the sexual abuse or exploitation of a child for the financial benefit of any person or in exchange for anything of value (including monetary and non .
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include engaging in sexual activities with a child (whether by asking or pressuring, or by other means), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.), child grooming, or using a child to produce child.
Read about outbreaks of botulism poisoning, causes (Clostridium botulinum toxin), symptoms (muscle paralysis, dry mouth, constipation), history, treatment, and types (foodborne, infant, wound). The botulinum toxin is one of the most lethal known substances.
Underage Drinking. Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused drug among youth in the United States. 1 Excessive drinking is responsible for more than 4, deaths among underage youth each year, and cost the U.S. $24 billion in economic costs in 2,3 Although drinking by persons under the age of 21 is illegal, people aged 12 to 20 years drink 11% of all alcohol consumed in the United.
Causes At present there are two major theories about the origin and nature of NPD. One theory regards NPD as a form of arrested psychological development while the other regards it as a young child's defense against psychological pain.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | Street children: Causes, consequences, and innovative treatment approaches | "Children are travelers, newly arrived in a country ofwhich they know nothing." (John.