World War I was over, but the hysteria lingered. The Eastern front had not gone well for Russia. The pressures of their losing effort forced the Russian czar to abdicate.
World War I was over, but the hysteria lingered. The Eastern front had not gone well for Russia.
The pressures of their losing effort forced the Russian czar to abdicate. The new government had not fared much better. Finally in NovemberLenin led a successful revolution of the Bolshevik workers.
The ideas of Karl Marx had been known sincebut nowhere in the world until now had a successful communist revolution occurred.
Once the war against Germany was over, the Western powers focused their energies at restoring Czar Nicholas. All this effort was in vain. The Bolsheviks murdered the entire royal family and slowly secured control of the entire nation.
Workers who avoided striking during the war were now demanding wage increases to keep pace with spiraling inflation. Over 3, postwar strikes swept the land. A small group of radicals formed the Communist Labor Party in Progressive and conservative Americans believed that labor activism was a menace to American society and must be squelched.
Palmer was determined that no Bolshevik Revolution would happen in the United States. The police investigating the crime arrested two Italian immigrants named Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. Sacco and Vanzetti maintained their innocence, but they already had a strike against them: Just a little over two weeks after their arrest, they were found guilty.
Many people, particularly fellow socialists, protested the verdict, saying the two men were convicted more on political and ethnic prejudice than on any real evidence. Indeed, four years later, another man said he had committed the crime with a local gang.
Despite appeals, Sacco and Vanzetti were never granted a retrial. When they were sentenced to death on April 9,protests erupted around the country.
But to no avail — the men were executed on Aug. They claimed they were innocent until the moment of their deaths. Scholars still debate the guilt and innocence of Sacco and Vanzetti, but there is little question that the trial was biased against them.
Palmer's Efforts From toPalmer conducted a series of raids on individuals he believed were dangerous to American security. He deported Russian immigrants without just cause. The so-called "Soviet ark" was sent back to Mother Russia.
With Palmer's sponsorship, the Federal Bureau of Investigation was created under the leadership of J. In January offederal agents broke into the homes of suspected anarchists without search warrants, jailed labor leaders, and held about 5, citizens without respecting their right to legal counsel.
Palmer felt that American civil liberties were less important than rooting out potential wrongdoers. Eventually most of the detainees were released, but some were deported.
The climate set by Palmer and Hoover could not be contained. Still agitated by wartime propaganda, members of the American public took matters into their own hands. American Legionnaires in Centralia, Washington attacked members of the Wobblies. Twelve radicals were arrested; one of them was beaten, castrated, and then shot.
Twenty-eight states banned the public display of red flags. It seemed as though the witch hunt would never end. Responsible Americans began to speak out against Palmer's raids and demand that American civil liberties be respected.
By the summer ofthe worst of the furor had subsided.The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September - 15 May ), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Palestine, in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established, and Transjordan, a .
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